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A form supplied by the Internal Revenue Service or a substitute form that follows IRS specifications used to record a particular category of payment or receipt. The form is used by the RF at calendar year-end to report payments made to nonresident aliens during a tax year.

A form supplied by the Internal Revenue Service or a substitute form that follows IRS specifications used to record a particular category of payment or receipt. The form is used by the RF at calendar year-end to report certain miscellaneous income payments made to U.S. citizens and resident aliens during a tax year.

1099 number
The tax identification (ID) number for a supplier. According to IRS rules, lack of a valid tax ID number may result in tax withholding. Accounts Payable (AP) stores the tax identification number for each supplier. AP also enables you to enter a withholding status for each supplier.

1099 types
A 1099 classification scheme for types of payments. Each 1099 form has one or more payment types. A 1099 supplier may receive payments from more than one type. AP records 1099 payments by type so that you can report them according to IRS requirements.

2-way matching
The process of verifying that purchase order and invoice information matches within accepted tolerance levels. The following criteria is used to verify two-way matching:
Invoice price is less than or equal to Order price
Quantity billed is less than or equal to Quantity ordered

3-way matching
The process of verifying that purchase order, invoice, and receiving information matches within accepted tolerance levels. The following criteria is used to verify three-way matching:
Invoice price is less than or equal to Purchase Order price
Quantity billed is less than or equal to Quantity ordered
Quantity billed is less than or equal to Quantity received

4-way matching
The process of verifying that purchase order, invoice, and receiving information matches within accepted tolerance levels. The following criteria is used to verify four-way matching:
Invoice price is less than or equal to Order price
Quantity billed is less than or equal to Quantity ordered
Quantity billed is less than or equal to Quantity received
Quantity billed is less than or equal to Quantity accepted


Use of employee leave accruals or leave use. Absence types are categories of absence, such as medical leave or vacation leave, that are defined for use in absence windows.

Academic year obligation
An annual obligation of service for the academic year, which is determined by the chief administrative officer or designee of each operating location.

The record established from the grant or contract received by an organization from a sponsor (customer). Awards are used to fund one or more projects.

Accounting (methods)

  • accrual basis accounting — A method of accounting in which revenues are recognized in the accounting period in which they are earned and expenses are recognized in the accounting period in which they are incurred. Both revenues and expenses need to be measurable to be reportable.
  • cash basis of accounting — A method of accounting in which expenses are recognized only when they are incurred. With the cash basis of accounting, Payables only create journal entries for invoice payments.

Administrative employees
Administrative employees are those persons employed:

  • at the Research Foundation central office in positions paid from corporate accounts. 


  • in positions at operating locations that are supported from RF funded allocations and that involve performing sponsored program administration or general campus administration. Administrative positions are generally characterized by open-ended appointments and are not normally subject to annual renewal depending on the availability of grant revenue.

Administrative staff at operating locations are usually in positions where the Award Purpose Code is "RF Funded Revenue" and the assigned project is classified under one of the following NACUBO class categories:

    • Sponsored Funds Administration
    • General Administration
    • Departmental Administration
    • General Institutional Support
    • Institutional and Dept Support
    • Maintenance and Operations
    • Student Services
    • Libraries


    • Staff in administrative positions on sponsored program awards and project staff temporarily supported from revenue distribution awards (RF funded) are not considered administrative employees.
    • Employees paid from agency funds (e.g., staffing services, clinical practice, etc.) are not considered administrative employees.

Adverse Impact
A form of discrimination which occurs when an organization's neutral policy or practice that is applied uniformly to all applicants or employees (e.g., word-of-mouth recruiting, educational requirements, etc.) has the effect of denying employment or advancement to members of protected classes (women and minorities). Business necessity (e.g., a reduction-in-force, etc.) is the only justifiable reason for adverse impact.

After-the-fact reporting
Certification of personal activity (i.e., effort) completed after the actual events occurred.

Aggregate balance
The sum of the end-of-day balances for a range of days. There are three types of aggregate balances: period-to-date (PTD), quarter-to-date (QTD), and year-to-date (YTD). All three are stored in the General Ledger database for every calendar day.

For tax purposes, a foreign person in the U.S. who is not a citizen of the U.S.; also referred to as a "non-citizen." (see also resident alien and nonresident alien.)

Alternate regions
In Oracle, parts of a window that appear in a stack so that only one is visible at any time. The user clicks on the name of the region to pop up a list  of the other regions in the stack. Select the name of a region to bring it to the top of the stack. For example, in Awards Management, the options that address specific needs or requirements for the award (e.g., Installments, Terms and Conditions, Reports, etc.).

See award status inquiry.

An authorization by a legislative body that permits a government to incur obligations and make payments for specified purposes. An appropriation usually follows enactment of authorizing legislation. Appropriations are limits on the amounts agencies can obligate during the time specified in the appropriation act.

See fixed asset.

In Oracle, an assignment is entered in the HR people file and identifies a number of components, including the organization, people type (employee, fellow, etc.), and the payroll for a person.  A person's assignment identifies his or her role and payroll within a Business Group.

At risk awards
Awards for which a formal award document has not been received from the sponsor.

The record established from the grant or contract received by an organization. Awards are used to fund one or more projects.

Award roles
Positions or functions that people perform in activities funded by an award (not necessarily paid employees). 

Award status inquiry
A summary of amounts by award, project, resource or task. See RFASI.


Back-value transactions
Transactions whose effective date is prior to the current accounting date. Also known as value-dated transactions.

Baselined budget
The authorized budget used for expenditures for an award, project or task.

Any part of an employee’s remuneration package that is not pay.

The seller's offer to furnish material or perform services at a stated price under specific terms in response to the buyer's solicitation. A bid may be a formal document, an advertisement, a letter, or a verbal offer by the bidder.

Bonus (performance/incentive)
A lump-sum, non-cumulative cash award that may be granted to an employee in the following situations:

  • for a significant contribution that substantially benefits the Research Foundation, project, or unit.
  • as a productivity bonus when certain predetermined productivity measures are met during the performance period 

Budget controls
Parameters that set the funds control level for awards, tasks, resources and resource groups in a project. When budgetary control is enabled,funds can be checked online for transactions, and funds can be reserved for transactions by creating encumbrances.

Budget entry method
The combination of three parameters to determine how the budget is entered. The parameters are: 

  • the level at which budgeting is done (e.g., project, task)
  • resources are expenditure categories. A resource group is similar to today’s "major category" level; a resource is the "minor category." A major conceptual change in this area is that the number of expenditure categories has increased from 100 to approximately 300 to support all-funds reporting.
  • the time period for budgeting. 

Burden costs
Costs of doing business that cannot be directly attributed to work performed, such as fringe benefits, office space, and administrative costs. Burden costs are also known as indirect costs or F & A.

Burdened cost
Cost of an expenditure item, including raw cost plus burden costs.

Burden schedule
Establishes the burden multipliers and bases used to calculate the burdened costs of each expenditure item charged to a project.


Calendar-year appointment
A type of appointment in which a SUNY employee is obligated to the University for a twelve-month period.

Certification of effort
Effort is certified when the employee, principal investigator, or responsible official signs the Oracle effort report or timesheet to confirm that the distribution of charges represents a reasonable estimate of the work performed by the employee during the period.

Note: Only one signature (of the employee, principal investigator, or responsible official) is required for certification.

Charging instruction
A PTAOE combination that when taken together specifies what funds should be used for an expense or an encumbrance. Labor Distribution is set up to distribute payroll costs to one or more charging instructions in Grants Management. Labor Schedules lists all PTAOE charging instructions for an employee. When an employee is assigned to more than one PTAOE, a percentage of the employee's salary is assigned to a separate line on the labor schedule.

Chart of accounts
The account structure the RF uses to record transactions and maintain account balances. An account combination, the chart of accounts structure is composed of segments which represent a structural level or function of the organization. Information can then be inquired on and reported on using any combination of the defined segments. Examples of segments are location, department, grant, and category.

Class category
Identifies the type of program for which funds are to be used (e.g., organized research, educational support, fellowships, etc.).

Class code
See class category.

A payment based on a formula that is used to calculate the incentive compensation opportunity for salespeople. In this context, it provides a predetermined incentive amount for each discrete unit of sales made by the salesperson.

In Oracle, a commitment is created when a requisition is approved in Purchasing.

Committed funds
Monies awarded by external sponsors for sponsored program expenditures in which a definitive, written funding commitment was received from the sponsor or in which the campus has taken on the responsibility of the commitment and has authorized the spending of sponsored program funds. Committed funds are calculated as the net change in active installments (increases or decreases).

The pay given to employees, including wages or salary, and bonuses.

Concurrent manager
An Oracle facility that manages many noninteractive tasks within all Oracle Applications at all operating locations at the same time. Each time a task, such as a report request or a nightly process, is submitted, the request is put into a queue of requests. Oracle's concurrent manager monitors activity and runs the requests in a certain order defined by Central Office Operations.

Conflict of Interest

A conflict between the private interests and the official or professional responsibilities of a person in a position of trust.

An individual (or firm) possessing expertise in a particular field engaged to perform a specific task during a defined period of time for a stated fee. The consultant acts independently and is free to select the means and methods necessary to accomplish the assignment or tasks to be performed.

A direct award used by a sponsor to acquire property or services for the sponsor's direct benefit. Moreover, a contract is bilateral, which means the instrument must be signed, and terms accepted, by both parties. A contract reflects formal deliverables, is a more restrictive mechanism for securing services than a grant, and may specify penalties for nonperformance. True federal contracts are based upon the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR).

Contracting officer
The person in a Federal agency empowered to negotiate and accept, on behalf of the government, contracts and purchase agreements between the government and the Research Foundation.

Controlled substance
As it is relates to the Drug-Free Workplace Policy, the term controlled substance means a controlled substance in Schedules I through V of Section 202 of the Controlled Substances Act (Title 21, Chapter 13 of the United States Code, Section 812). Controlled substances include marijuana, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, and similar substances. Controlled substances do not include alcohol or tobacco.

Cooperative Agreement
A direct award of financial assistance used to carry out an approved project or activity, usually in support of a public purpose. Unlike a grant, however, substantial involvement is expected between the sponsor and the recipient.

Corporate award
RF-funded awards that are the repository for reimbursed facilities and administrative (F&A) costs, agency fees, royalty revenue, and other campus activity awards. F&A costs are overhead costs reimbursed to the campus and the RF as a result of the conduct of sponsored research and other programs within SUNY. Agency fees are earned by the campuses for agency activity performed at their campus. As a result of the research performed at the campuses, the RF has patent and invention agreements with many companies. A portion (typically 60%) of this royalty revenue is available for the campus to spend. The Bayh-Dole Act notes that the remaining royalty revenue must be used to support scientific research or education. Corporate awards also contain other campus activity funds that are necessary to maintain or conduct various other aspects of campus business. These funds include service and facility, category refunds, payroll overpayment, refund to sponsors, suspense, etc.

As approved by the RF’s board of directors, campuses may use their portion of corporate award funds for instruction, organized research and other sponsored activities, and institutional activities. 

Cost analysis
The process by which the elements of costs used by the supplier to arrive at the price at which goods or services are offered are analyzed to determine if these elements are reasonable, allocable, and allowable. These elements include but are not limited to labor costs, material costs, and indirect costs.

Cost participation
Cost participation occurs when SUNY, the Research Foundation, or a third party contributes unpaid personal service effort or other than personal service (OTPS) items (e.g., supplies, rental space, or indirect cost recovery at less than the applicable rate) towards the total direct or indirect costs of a project.

Cost participation occurs in the form of either cost sharing or matching commitment (as determined by sponsor requirements). Cost participation is estimated at the beginning of the project and substantiated throughout and/or at the end of the project.

Cost share
A gift given to and accepted by SUNY (not the RF) that is used to cover a portion of the costs of a sponsored program. The SUNY contribution to the program is called "cost share."

Covered territories
Relates to vehicle insurance coverage The Research Foundation standard business automobile policy identifies covered territories as "the United States of America; the territories and possessions of the United States of America; Puerto Rico; and Canada." The RF's insurance carrier will defend any claim or suits filed in the covered territories.

Credit and debit memos
A record in Invoices of a credit for goods or services purchased. Credit/debit memos are netted with basic invoices at payment time. 

  • credit memo. Negative amount invoice created by a supplier and sent to notify you of a credit.
  • debit memo. Negative amount invoice created by you and sent to a supplier to notify the supplier of a credit you are recording.

Current budget
The most recently baselined budget version of the budget.

Current record indicator
In Oracle, multi-record blocks often display a current record indicator to the left of each record. A current record indicator is a one character field that when filled in, identifies a record as being the current or active record. Sometimes, a current record indicator appears as a two character-wide field, indicating that the current multi-record block supports a capability called drill down. 

The sponsor, also referred to as the funding source.

Specialized form, report, or automated process. A customization was considered mandatory if 1) the Oracle application did not meet the current business requirement and no alternative solution was available, and 2) without a customization, the software functionality would have a severe adverse impact on the users and/or be a major digression from the functionality of the legacy system.


Damage waiver protection
Damage waiver protection insurance that covers physical damage to a rental vehicle. Also referred to as Loss Damage Waiver (LDW) or Collision Damage Waiver (CDW) insurance.

Date track
A view of Oracle at any point in time (past or future). Editing and viewing of information is allowed for future dates. When you change your effective date, either to past or future, DateTrack enables you to enter information that takes effect on your new effective date, and to review information as of the new date. Two types of date tracking are:

  • update — Create a new record as from the effective date. The system also maintains a history of the original information.
  • correct — The record on display will override the previous information with the changes.

Debit memo
See credit and debit memos.

Delete record
An action that deletes the current record from the database. This Toolbar button is not always available because many records must be inactivated instead of deleted. This action is invoked by using the Delete Record icon from the Toolbar

Demotion, involuntary
The act of assigning an employee to a position that has a lower position title and corresponding salary grade for such reasons as reorganization, reduction-in-force, or for changes in sponsored program needs.

Demotion, voluntary
Occurs when an employee elects to take a position that has a lower position title and corresponding salary grade for reasons personal to the employee or to avoid being laid off during a reduction-in-force.

Descriptive flexfield
A customized field that can capture additional information required by an RF business process but not otherwise tracked by Oracle applications (e.g., prime sponsor on federal flow through awards). A descriptive flexfield appears in a block as a two character (or single character), unnamed field enclosed in brackets.

Detail budget
A budget whose authority is controlled by another budget.

Direct invoice or direct payment invoice
An invoice that does not have a corresponding purchase order. A miscellaneous payment is processed as a direct invoice.

Disabled individual
"One who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of an individual's major life activities; or refers to an individual having a record of such an impairment; or refers to an individual who is regarded as having such an impairment." A record of such an impairment means a history (accurate or not) of having a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.

Discretionary award
An individual, one-time, lump sum, not added to base pay as authorized in the corporate salary plan.

"Unequal treatment of a class of persons. Discrimination may involve a single act or it may involve a continuing policy or practice. It may be intentional or unintentional; purpose or intent is irrelevant when the effect is to deny equal opportunity. If the result of an action, policy, or practice is unequal treatment of a particular protected class, then that action, policy, or practice is discriminatory."*

* Equal Employment Opportunity Compliance Manual, published by Prentice-Hall Information Services.

Draft budget
Working copy of the budget.

An automated system to request funds from sponsors (i.e., customers), using, for example, electronic mail or the telephone. If the request is granted, the sponsor deposits the funds directly into the recipient's bank account.

Drill down
In Oracle, allows you to click on a current record indicator to navigate directly to another window that displays either details of the current record or information related to the current record. Records that provide drill down are indicated by a wide width current record indicator. By double-clicking on the indicator you will navigate to the detail window. When a field provides drill-down it is rendered in green-underlined text on a white background. Double-click on the field to navigate to the detail window.


Effective date
Refers to the change date or start date (not necessarily the same as the posting date). The date a transaction affects the balances in the general ledger. Also known as the value date. The date, set in the Alter Effective Date window, for which you are entering and viewing information. See also date track.

Special information used to represent various types of compensation, such as earnings and deductions (provider services). Elements are assigned for deductions to be taken but can also be generated or assigned for earnings and leave accruals. Each element represents a compensation or benefit type, such as salary, wages, bonuses, and pension contributions, as well as information items and nonpayment types.

  • sample supplemental earnings elements — non-overnight meal reimbursement; moving expense reimbursement; severance pay; vacation pay at termination; stipend payments; AmeriCorp Allowance Payments.
  • sample nonpayroll payment elements — savings bond refunds; tax refunds.
  • sample deduction elements — voluntary deductions (parking; health insurance; United Way), involuntary deductions (child support; income executions or garnishing), and pretax deductions (health insurance).  

Employment at will
Created when an employee agrees to work for an employer but there is no specified length of time the employee or employer expect the employment to last. In an employment-at-will situation, the employment relationship can, in general, be terminated at any time by either party.*

*Definition taken from Fear of Firing, A Legal and Personnel Analysis of Employment-At-Will by Lorber, Kirk, Kirschner, Handorf, copyright 1984, The ASPA Foundation.

The recording of a commitment made against project funds to purchase material or services for which actual payment will not be made until materials are delivered or service rendered. Encumbrances are recorded when purchase orders, contracts, subcontracts, or other forms of purchase agreements are issued to the vendor. Salaries and wages are encumbered after the payroll encumbrance processes are run for a particular pay period.

Encumbrance lines
Name, pay period, and dollar amount.

An organization (as a business or governmental unit) that has a legal identity which is separate from those of its members.
An entity in regards to subawards is NOT an individual.

Equal employment opportunity
"Equal access to all available jobs and training, under equal terms and conditions, and with equal benefits and services without actions, policies, or practices that differentiate among applicants or employees on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age or religion."*

*Equal Employment Opportunity Compliance Manual, published by Prentice-Hall Information Services.

Exempt position
A position that satisfies the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) tests for exemption from the act’s overtime provisions based on salary and position responsibilities.

Activities that represent payments, repayments or receipts for goods or services provided. The term included actual expenses and accrued liabilities. Expenditures do not include anticipated expenses, such as encumbrances.

Expenditure category
A specific or minor category, such as chemicals, domestic travel, or research equipment.

Extra service
Payment for performance beyond that normally required by the professional obligation.

Full-time Research Foundation employees in exempt positions who have regular assignment and full-time SUNY professional employees may be compensated by means of extra service for work beyond that which is normally required by their professional obligation. Such activity may involve, but is not limited to, teaching, research, and public service. An extra service assignment can be made when

  • the work performed is different from or in addition to the person's professional obligation,
  • the work performed is outside of regularly scheduled hours and extra service is actually rendered,
  • the payment conforms to Research Foundation and SUNY policy,
  • the payment is properly authorized under SUNY and Research Foundation policy, and
  • the sponsor has formally approved the appointment, if required.

Such appointments are excluded from the requirement for effort reporting under OMB Circular A-21. 


An individual who is paid a stipend through the Research Foundation and is not required to perform a service to receive the stipend.

Nonwage payments in support of the recipient's academic study or fellow-initiated research and in recognition of the recipient's promise as a research or teaching scholar. Fellowship awards administered by the Research Foundation on behalf of SUNY are for scholarly study or research by faculty members, postdoctoral scholars, and undergraduate and graduate students at a SUNY campus or at other locations in conjunction with SUNY academic programs.

Foreign territories
Relates to vehicle insurance coverage. Any territories outside of the "covered territories".

Fiscal year
Any yearly accounting period without regard to its relationship to a calendar year.

Fixed asset
An item owned by your company and used for operations. Fixed assets generally have a life of more than one year, are acquired for use in the operation of the company, and are not intended for resale to customers.

Fixed price award
A fixed price award is any sponsored grant or contract where the sponsor does not require the Research Foundation to return any unexpended funds at the conclusion of the project.

Fixed price balance award
A fixed price balance award is an award established to record the balance of funds that remain after termination of a project (either grant or contract) supported by a fixed price award.

A flexible data field, able to be customized, that is made up of segments and used to capture information specific to the RF. Each segment has an assigned name and a set of valid values. There are two types:

  • key — can be customized to enter multiple segment values. See key flexfield.
  • descriptive — can be customized to enter additional information for which the application has not already provided a field. See descriptive flexfield.

"Flow-down" clauses
Clauses which, in accordance with Federal regulations, must be incorporated in purchase instruments when the dollar value of the procurement exceeds certain specified amount(s). The purpose of these clauses is to ensure that the vendor, in furnishing materials or rendering services to Federally sponsored projects, complies with such regulatory legislation as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the United States Department of Labor regulations.

In an Oracle application, a set of windows that completes a specific task. In the RF, forms are documents located in the Forms resource area of EPSS that are filled out for a particular purpose.

Full-time employee
One who works for at least the number of hours per week that represents the operating location's standard workweek. That employee is said to be working at 1.0 FTE.

Full meal per diem
Meal allowance of one breakfast and one dinner for an employee who is on travel for official Research Foundation business. To be entitled to a full meal allowance, a traveler must be in overnight travel status. See meal allowance and per diem.

Full time equivalent (FTE)
The time a person devotes to an assignment. Expressed as a whole number or a decimal (e.g., 1, .5, .25) 

Funds available
The difference between an authorized spending amount and all actual and anticipated expenditures. In other words, funds available is the amount budgeted less actual expenses and encumbrances of all types. Oracle Financials lets you check funds available online for requisitions, purchase orders, and invoices. Funds Available = Budget - (Actual Expenses + Encumbrances).

Funds checking
The process of verifying that sufficient funds are available to cover expenditures. Funds can be checked when entering a requisition, purchase order, or invoice. Oracle Financials does not reserve funds for a transaction, but compares the transaction amount against funds available and notifies you online whether funds are available.


An item of value given to the RF by a donor who expects nothing significant of value in return, other than recognition and disposition of the gift in accordance with the donor's wishes. A gift has the following characteristics:

  1. No contractual requirements are imposed and there are no "deliverables" to the donor (however, a gift may be accompanied by an agreement that restricts the use of gifted funds or commodities to a particular purpose)
  2. The gift is typically irrevocable. While a gift may be intended for use within a certain timeframe, there is no specified period of performance or a start or end date associated with the gift or its use.
  3. The RF has no formal fiscal accountability to the donor beyond periodic progress reports and summary reports of expenditures. These reports may be thought of as requirements of good stewardship, and as such, may be required by the terms of the gift. They are not characterized as contractual obligations or "deliverables."

For both Oracle and RF, a level associated with salary ranges or salary points. A component of an employee’s assignment that defines the employee's level and can be used to monitor the value of salary and other compensation elements.

A direct award of financial assistance used to carry out an approved project or activity, usually in support of a public purpose (to advance basic and applied research, offer training opportunities, etc.). The investigator defines the scope of work and retains control over the activities and results. Most grants do not require bilateral signature. Substantial involvement is not expected by the sponsor during the performance of the award activity.

Government reporting entity (GRE)
An organization recognized by federal, state, and local governments as an employer that issues pay to employees, withholds taxes from this pay, and provides certain government-mandated reporting for which the unique nine-digit employer identification number is entered (e.g., the Research Foundation).


"Unnecessarily oppressive exercise of authority; conduct motivated by a malicious or discriminatory purpose" (Gifis, Steven H. Dictionary of Legal Terms). Harassment may include slurs, epithets, threats, derogatory comments, unwelcome jokes, teasing, and other similar verbal or physical conduct. The Research Foundation's policy on sexual harassment is located in this section of the manual.

Human Resources Management System, which includes the Oracle applications for Human Resources, Payroll and Labor Distribution.

Historically underutilized business zone located within one or more qualified census tracts, qualified nonmetropolitan counties, or lands within the external boundaries of an Indian reservation.

HUBZone small business concern
A small business concern that appears on the List of Qualified HUBZone Small Business Concerns maintained by the Small Business Administration.


I-9 form
An employee’s status with respect to Immigration Reform and Control Act documentation requirements.

IFR (income fund reimbursement)
Process to reimburse SUNY for direct charges and fringe benefit costs related to SUNY employees working on RF administered grants. Also see labor distribution

Immigration and Naturalization Service. In 2003 the functions and services of this former U.S. organization were transferred to the Department of Homeland Security under a newly formed organization, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). For more information, see

Imprest account
An imprest account is an account, normally used to advance funds, that is replenished in exactly the amount expended from it.

Imputed income
The attributed cash value of non-cash income, such as a leased car or other non-cash benefits that may be received in certain special circumstances. Imputed income may increase an employee's gross income without affecting his/her net pay.

Incidental expenses
Incidentals are minor expenses such as tips to maids and bellhops.  Incidental expenses are part of the per diem meals and incidental expenses (M&IE) rates, which are governed by the General Services Administration (GSA).

Independent contractor
Any individual or firm who offers services to the public in return for an established fee and over whom the Research Foundation exercises no control or direction as to the details or means by which a result is accomplished. An independent contractor is compensated based on a fee, and payment is made through the Research Foundation’s accounts payable system. Examples of an independent contractor include consultants and lecturers. 

A portion of the total award funding that is received in fixed amounts at specified intervals. An installment typically represents a budget year (e.g., NIH award with committed support).

A physical copy of an Oracle database in which data is created, changed, displayed and deleted as needed without affecting any other copy of the database. 

Institutional Base Salary 
Annual salary paid to an individual for performance of all professional obligations required by the individual's primary appointment. These professional obligations may include research, teaching, administrative functions, and/or other service activities and are generally identified in the individual's appointment or reappointment letter. Unless otherwise specified, the annual salary stated in the appointment or reappointment letter full compensates the individual for all professional obligations required by his/her primary appointment. IBS exludes any income that an individual is permitted to earn outside of duties performed as part of his/her primary appointment.

Document created online that generates a payment to a supplier (Accounts Payable invoice) or from a sponsor (Accounts Receivable invoice).

Invoice hold
Prevents payment to a supplier.


A role with a set of qualifications and duties (e.g., Network Administrator). The term job in Oracle is equivalent to the RF’s position title. 


Key flexfield
A flexible data field made up of segments. Each segment has a name that is defined and a set of valid values specified. Used as the key to uniquely identify an entity, such as jobs, grades cost codes and employee groups. Also see flexfield.

Key members
In addition to Project Directors, includes employees who are assigned roles on a project.


Labor distribution (LD)
A Human Resources Oracle module, which includes effort reporting and IFR appointments.

Labor schedule
Consists of a project, task, award, organization, expenditure type, begin date, end date (optional) and a percentage to define where a person's labor costs must be distributed. See charging instructions.

Labor surplus area
A geographical area in which the rate of unemployment exceeds the national average. Vendors in such areas are eligible to receive preferential treatment in bidding on procurements made on Federally supported programs in accordance with Executive Order 12073.

A person having specialized knowledge of a particular subject who is engaged to convey this knowledge by discourse to an audience in return for an established fee. If the speaking engagements are extensive, the person may have to be considered an employee. 

NOTE:  The IRS has ruled, in most cases, that adjunct faculty are employees.

Legacy system / legacy data
The old RF mainframe system and the data converted from the mainframe.

List of values (LOV)
Acceptable input values for the current Oracle field, chosen from a pick-list of choices. When you display a list, the values appear in a window with a title that describes the contents.

Local travel
Travel is local if the approved Research Foundation (RF) business is conducted in and around the traveler's official station.

Geographic sites where people or organizations are physically located. Locations can be very general (e.g., campus) or specific (e.g., central office — first floor). An organization has classifications that allow functionality within the organization.

Long-term rental agreement
A written vehicle rental agreement for longer than 30 days that sets forth the terms and conditions governing the use of a rental vehicle. All long-term rental agreements must be forwarded to the RF Office of the Chief Financial Officer for insurance and compliance review and approval before execution by the operating location. All long-term rental vehicles should be added to the RF business automobile policy.

Lump-sum payment
An award that is made in a single payment. This type of payment is not to be used for a performance or incentive bonus, a discretionary award, or commission.


Manager of the complaint procedures
The office or person designated by the Research Foundation operations manager as responsible for the management of the Research Foundation complaint procedure at that operating location.

Master budget
A budget that controls the authority of other budgets.

The process of comparing purchase order, invoice, and receiving information to verify that ordering, billing, and receiving information is consistent within accepted tolerance levels. When you match an invoice to a purchase order, 2-way matching is performed. In the Purchasing Options window, you can choose to additionally use 3-way or 4-way matching.

Matching tolerance
The acceptable percent variance for matched invoices and purchase orders. If any of the variances between a matched invoice and purchase order exceed the specified tolerances, Approval places the invoice on hold.

Meal allowance
One meal allowance is a combination of one breakfast and one diner (or vice versa).

Minority owned business
A business owned at least 51 percent by minority group members. In the case of publicly-owned businesses, if 51 percent of more of the stock is owned by minorities, then that business also qualifies as a minority-owned business. Minorities include African Americans, Puerto Ricans, Spanish-Speaking Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, American Eskimos, and American Aleuts.

Miscellaneous income payments
Includes payments for royalties, rent, and nonemployee compensation to independent contractors, business and travel expenses, and nonresident alien fellowship payments made from the Accounts Payable (AP) system.

Multiple assignment
Assignment used to identify an employee who is working in two locations and will receive two separate checks.


National Automated ClearingHouse Association. This is the US system for making direct deposit payments to employees.

See class category. The National Association of College and University Business Officers is a nonprofit professional organization representing chief administrative and financial officers at more than 2,100 colleges and universities across the country. NACUBO's mission is to promote sound management and financial practices at colleges and universities. See

Next of Kin (as defined for FMLA Military Caregiver Leave)
Nearest blood relative (other than a spouse, parent, son or daughter) to include the following in order of priority: a relative who has been granted legal custody of the covered service member, brothers, sisters, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and first cousins, or a specific blood relative who has been designated as a service member’s caregiver. When no such designation is made, and there are multiple family members with the same level of relationship to the covered service member, all such family members are considered to be next of kin and may take FMLA leave to provide care to the covered service member, either consecutively or simultaneously.

Nonemployee compensation
Payments to human subjects and payments to independent contractors for services such as consulting or lecturing where an employer-employee relationship does not exist.

Nonexempt position
A position that does not satisfy the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) tests for exemption from the FLSA overtime provisions based on salary and position responsibilities.

Nonprofessional, SUNY
A person employed by the State University of New York (SUNY) in a clerical, technical, or administrative position who is covered by the overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). See also nonexempt position.

Non-program support
Contributions of cash or noncash (real or personal property or equipment) made from a third party to the Research Foundation that are to be used for the general benefit of the operating location (campus), not associated with a specific research program.

Nonrecurring elements
Elements that process for only one payroll period, unless you make a new entry for an employee.

Nonresident alien
A person who is not a U.S. citizen or a permanent resident of the U.S., but who has gained a right from the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services to reside in the U.S. and may have the right to work for a specific period of time. Authorization to work in the U.S. is required for a nonresident alien.

An alien or foreign person is any person who is not a citizen of the U.S., also referred to as a "non-citizen."


Oracle Application Users’ Group ( General OAUG information, conference information, and the On-line Vendor Directory are public to all Internet users. OAUG members may access the Members-Only section, including information on enhancements, paper and membership databases, and other features.

A transaction representing a legally binding purchase. See also commitment, purchase order encumbrance, and encumbrance.

Official station
The official station of an employee is the address of the office to which the employee is assigned.  Such designation should be in the best interest of the RF or project and not for the convenience of the RF employee.

The Labor Distribution module in the Research Foundation's Oracle business application.

OMB (Office of Management and Budget)
OMB, working cooperatively with Federal agencies and non-Federal parties, establishes governmentwide grants management policies and guidelines through circulars and common rules. These policies are adopted by each grantmaking agency and inserted into their Federal regulations. See

OMB Circular A-110
A federal publication issued by the United States Office of Management and Budget which prescribes uniform administrative requirements to be fulfilled by institutions of higher education in the management and performances of grants and agreements awarded by the Federal government. The Research Foundation procurement policy is based in large part on the requirements specified in Sections .40 to .48 of this federal regulation.

Oracle applications window
See window.

Departments or organizations within each operating location; a business entity at a specific location (such as central office, campus or department). A required component of employee assignments. Organizations can be internal or external and can be structured into organizational hierarchies for reporting purposes and for system access control. For RF, refers to the Research Foundation as a whole, including all campus locations, central office, MH and HRI.

Other institutional activities
All activities on other than Research Foundation administered sponsored programs performed by a SUNY employee in fulfillment of his or her obligation to SUNY.

Overnight status
When an employee is on travel for official RF business, he/she is in overnight travel status only on those days when the employee stays overnight at the travel destination and does not return home or to his/her official station.


Participant stipend
Nonwage support payments for a person engaged in a nonacademic vocational or secondary school education and training program administered by the Research Foundation. In many cases, a participant stipend is paid in a summer outreach and enrichment program. A person engaged in a program of this type may be paid a stipend based on hours of participation. 

Part-time employee
One who works for less than the operating location's standard workweek. Any employee who is working at anything less than 1.0 FTE is a part-time employee.

A legal entity that is jointly owned by two or more people, although in some cases partners may also be corporations or other entities.

Pass through Entity
An entity that provides a portion of an award it has received to a subrecipient to carry out a specific program.

All individuals that need to be tracked in the Human Resource system, such as employees, dependents, beneficiaries, and spouses. The legacy system classifies people by their titles, such as employee and fellow, and does not use this terminology in a special way.

People file
Used to store information about people who have a working relationship with the RF. People include: principal investigators, employees, fellows, contacts, volunteers. 

Per diem
A per diem is an allowance that can include a breakfast, a dinner, overnight lodging, and incidental expenses.

Permanent resident
A person who has gained a right from INS to be a permanent resident of the U.S., but is not a U.S. citizen. Authorization to work in the U.S. is not required for a permanent resident.

A specific instance of a job at a given location (e.g., the Network Administrator at Stony Brook). The combination of organization and job creates the position. There is not an equivalent term that the RF uses.

Position standard
A description of a specific RF position. The position standard describes the function and scope, typical duties, level of complexity, knowledge and formal training, job-related experience and special skills, and typical promotional opportunities of a position, among other items. All of these factors must be job-related as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

Position title
An approved title for a position at the Research Foundation (RF).

Price analysis
The process by which a supplier's selling price for an item or service is evaluated by the buyer to be equitable and/or competitive.

Primary assignment
Assignment type that will be used for Supervisor and deduction elements. The supervisor on the Primary Assignment will be the supervisor of record.

Prime Awardee
The entity granted the award by the sponsor. (The award receipient)

Procurement (purchase)
The acquisition of goods or services in exchange for money.

Professional, SUNY
A person employed by the State University of New York (SUNY) in an academic, executive, administrative, or professional position who is exempt from the overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). See exempt position.

A record to define a unit of work that can be broken down into one or more tasks. A project is the unit of work for which you specify revenue and billing methods, invoice formats, a managing organization and project manager, and bill rate schedules. You can charge costs to a project, and you can generate and maintain revenue, invoice, unbilled receivable, and unearned revenue information for a project.

Project budget
Summation of all the award budgets funding a project.

The act of assigning an employee to a position of greater responsibility that has a higher position title and salary grade.

Promotion, in grade
The act of assigning additional responsibilities to an employee when the employee remains in his or her current position or when the employee transfers to a new position while remaining in his or her existing salary grade.

Promotion, temporary
The act of temporarily assigning an employee additional responsibilities usually during the absence of another employee. A temporary promotion can be conditional, including time limits and/or standards to be met.

Property control system
An information system maintained by the State University of New York Construction Fund that provides a record of state-owned equipment and equipment purchased with Research Foundation administered funds at each campus.

Project, task, award, expenditure type, and organization. In Oracle, references to an individual's distribution refers to their PTAEO assignment.

Purchase instrument
A document that formalizes the terms and conditions mutually agreeable to the Research Foundation, as the buyer, and the vendor or individual, as the seller, to furnish materials or render services being purchased. Types of purchasing instruments are purchase orders, contracts, subcontracts, and maintenance and lease agreements.

Purchase order (PO)
A document used to buy and request delivery of goods or services from a supplier.

Purchase order encumbrance (see obligation, encumbrance)
A transaction representing a legally binding purchase.

Purchase requisition
A request to the purchasing department, authorized by the project director, to obtain specific materials or services. Requisitions will indicate  a suggested supplier, quantities of material needed, a clear description of services to be performed or goods to be provided, and required delivery date.


Qualifying Exigency Leave
Employees are eligible to take up to 12 weeks of job protected leave under FMLA for any qualifying exigency that arises while a covered Servicemember who is a member of the Armed Forces, Reserves, or National Guard is on covered active duty in a foreign country or is called to covered active duty in a foreign country. There are 9 different categories of this type of leave:

  1. Short-notice deployment: a covered military member is notified of an impending call or order to covered active duty 7 or less days before deployment.
  2. Military events and related activities: to attend any official ceremony, program, or event sponsored by the military that is related to covered active duty, or to attend family support or assistance programs or information briefings sponsored by the military.
  3. Childcare and school activities: to arrange for childcare when covered active duty necessitates a change in childcare arrangements, to provide childcare on an urgent basis when the urgency arises from covered active duty status, to enroll in a new school or daycare because of covered active duty, or to attend meetings at a school or daycare for a child of a covered service member due to circumstances arising from covered active duty.
  4. Financial and legal arrangements: to make or update financial arrangements to address a covered military member’s absence while on covered active duty or to act as a covered military member’s representative before a federal, state, or local agency to obtain or arrange military service benefits while a covered service member is on covered active duty.
  5. Counseling: to attend counseling provided by someone other than a health care provider for oneself, the covered military member, or a child or a covered service member if the need for counseling arises from covered active duty or the call to covered active duty.
  6. Rest and recuperation: to spend up to15 days of leave with a covered military member who is on short-term, temporary, rest and recuperation leave.
  7. Post-deployment activities: to attend arrival ceremonies, reintegration briefings and events and other official ceremonies sponsored by the military for a period of 90 days after the termination of covered active duty status, or to address issues that arise from the death of a covered military member while on covered active duty status.
  8. Parental care: to care for the parent of a military member, or someone who stood in loco parentis of the military member, when the parent is incapable of self-care and the need for leave arises out of the military member’s covered active duty or call to covered active duty status.
  9. Additional activities: any other event that may arise out of covered active duty or a call to covered active duty status, provided that such leave is agreed upon by the employer and employee.

Method to calculate an employee's earnings, tax withholdings, deductions and net pay. QuickPay can be useful to show the effect of pretax and other deductions. Viewable Statement of Earnings.


Raw costs
Direct costs.

In Oracle, a record is one occurrence of data stored in all the fields of a block. A block may show only one row of information at a time, or it may display several rows of information at once, depending on its layout. A record is also referred to as a row or a transaction, since one record corresponds to one row of data in a database table or one database transaction.

Includes paper and electronic documents, books, microforms, computer tapes, maps, video and sound recordings, and any other documentary materials, regardless of whether such items are in written form, in the form of computer data, or in any other form. Extra copies of documents retained only for reference convenience are not considered records.

Recurring elements
Elements that process regularly at a predefined frequency. In HR, recurring element entries exist from the time you create them until you delete them, or the employee ceases to be eligible for having the element. Recurring elements can have standard links.

Recurring invoice
Invoices created for an expense that occurs regularly but is not usually invoiced. Monthly rents and lease payments are examples of typical recurring payments.

The elimination of positions due to insufficient funding or a reorganization that results in the elimination of positions.

Payment, usually of an amount fixed by contract, made by a tenant at specified intervals in return for the right to occupy or use the property of another.

Reporting period
The specific period of time for which a person must certify personal activity in compliance with OMB Circular A-21. Effort reporting periods are usually referenced as spring, summer, and fall reporting periods for professional employees (i.e., exempt employees). Nonprofessional employees (i.e., nonexempt employees) report effort monthly.

Resident alien
The term applied by the IRS to a noncitizen residing in the U.S. who either holds an Alien Registration Receipt Card (INS-551), commonly known as a "Green Card," representing approval from the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service to remain in the U.S. for an indefinite period of time, or meets the substantial presence test for taxation and withholding purposes.

Expenditure categories, people, organizations.

In Oracle security, a responsibility provides access to a set of related tasks that are applicable to a specific job role.

The Research Foundation for the State University of New York.

A Research Foundation customized inquiry that allows you to drill down to see expenditure and encumbrance detail, purchase order information, employee detail, and cash received on the award, project, and task. This inquiry is date sensitive, so care must be taken to understand what payroll encumbering process has taken place and how data may be affected.

RF Exempt (Professional Employee)
See exempt position.

RF Nonexempt (Nonprofessional Employee)
See nonexempt position.

Risk Assessment
An evaluation of exposure to the chance of injury or loss; a hazard or dangerous chance.

All gross proceeds received by the Research Foundation as a result of negotiated agreements involving inventions and copyrights on books. A portion of the royalties is paid to the inventors and authors.


Schedule line
A combination of Grants Management charging instructions, schedule line begin date, schedule line end date, and distribution percentage used in Labor Distribution to create a labor schedule. One or more schedule lines, which assigns one or more specific PTAEOs to an employee, constitute a labor schedule. A schedule line period is contiguous days in the schedule lines in which the distribution percent is the same.

Serious Health Condition
An illness, injury, impairment or physical or mental condition that requires inpatient care in a hospital, hospice or residential medical care facility or continuing treatment by a health care provider. Continuing treatment can include treatment two or more times by a health care provider or treatment by a health care provider which results in a regimen or continuing treatment. These 2 visits to a health care provider must be within 30 days of the beginning of the period of incapacity and the first visit must take place within 7 days of the first day of incapacity. Periodic visits to a health care provider for treatment of a chronic illness is defined as 2 or more appointment over the course of one year.

Refers to teaching, research, or other work that the recipient must agree to perform in order to obtain the fellowship or stipend award. Service does not include research initiated by the recipient or such incidental activities as preparing progress reports or giving a speech on the results of the recipient's research. A service is not constituted by a general condition that the recipient comply with degree requirements even though the person is required to teach or engage in research in order to obtain the degree.

Sexual harassment
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, visual depictions, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of a person's employment; or when submission to or rejection of such conduct by a person is used as a basis for employment decisions affecting such person; or when such behavior has the purpose or effect of substantially interfering with a person's work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.

Sexual orientation
The disposition of a person for heterosexuality, homosexuality, asexuality, or bisexuality; or a history of such a disposition.

Short-term rental agreement
A written vehicle rental agreement not to exceed 30 continuous days that sets forth the terms and conditions governing the use of a rental vehicle.

Single source
A single source purchase is a purchase from a supplier who is chosen without soliciting for the minimum number of bids and proposals, despite the fact that competition exists, because of limiting circumstances.

Small business
A business that is independently owned and operated, is not dominant in its field of operation, and qualifies under various criteria prescribed by the Small Business Administration for number of employees, average annual receipts, etc.

Small disadvantaged business
A business enterprise classified as such by the Federal Small Business Administration. Under the Federal Small Business Act, such enterprises must be allowed to compete for an equitable share of all procurements made under federally supported grants and contracts.

SSN (Social Security Number)
Individual tax identification number issued to U.S. citizens by the U.S. Social Security Administration and used for tax reporting purposes. See also Tax Identification Number.

Sole proprietorship
A business that is owned by a person who is solely responsible for all aspects of the business. The owner is personally responsible for all debts of the business.

Sole source
A purchase from the only available supplier of the product or service. Therefore, no bids or proposals can be obtained.

A written request to a supplier to submit price quotations or bids on materials required or services to be rendered that are clearly and accurately defined by the buyer.

Sponsored program
Externally funded activities in which a formal written grant, contract, or cooperative agreement is received by the Research Foundation. A sponsored program or project may be thought of as a transaction in which there is a specified statement of work and a related reciprocal transfer of something of value.

Start date
See effective date.

Financial assistance in the form of money or property made under an award by a recipient (pass-through entity) to an eligible third party (subrecipient), or by a subrecipient to a lower tier recipient, to conduct an essential portion of the project work in compliance with the sponsor's terms and conditions.

See OMB Circulars for additional definition details.

A contractual document used when receiving flow-through monies from a recipient whose prime instrument is a contract.

Subcontracting plan
An organized institutional program, negotiated with a federal sponsor, to ensure that small business and small disadvantaged business, minority business, and labor surplus area firms will be offered an equitable opportunity to compete for contemplated subcontracts under individual prime grant or contract awards that exceed $500,000.

An award document used when receiving flow-through monies from a recipient whose prime instrument is a grant or cooperative agreement.

Submitted budget
A budget which cannot have charges against it until it is reviewed and baselined.

An entity that expends funds received from a pass-through entity to carry out objectives of a program.

Any tasks under a parent task. Subtasks constitute the lowest level of the work breakdown structure (WBS).

SUNY Nonprofessional Employee
See nonprofessional, SUNY.

SUNY Professorial or Professional Employee
See professional, SUNY.

Name of the business or individual providing goods or services in return for payment.

Supplier file
Information about suppliers (businesses or individuals who provide goods and/or services in return for payment) recorded in the Suppliers window.

Supplier site
The address from which a supplier conducts some or all if its business. A supplier site address should be entered for each location designated as a purchasing and/or pay site. Supplier sites cannot be shared by campuses. Each campus must create its owns site under a supplier. The only shared site is the 1099 site.

Suspense account
An account utilized when an employee has earnings imported into Labor Distribution (LD), but there is not a labor schedule for the pay cycle, the labor schedule does not distribute 100%, or an invalid value is assigned in the labor schedule.


The lowest unit of work in a project; a subdivision of project work. Each project can have a set of top-level tasks and a hierarchy of subtasks below each top-level task.

  • Top Task — a task whose parent is the project.
  • Middle Task — a task that is not a top task or lowest task.
  • Lowest Task — a task that is at the bottom of the Work Breakdown Structure.

Tax Identification Number (TIN)
A Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) is required by the federal government for reporting purposes. A TIN can be a Social Security Number (SSN) or an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN). A SSN is issued by the Social Security Administration (SSA) and an ITIN is issued by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).  

Technical service 
A person or a firm rendering technical and professional service for a fee.

NOTE: In general, persons (as opposed to corporations) rendering technical services are employees. 

Template (award + project)
Predefined data that repeats from award to award and from project to project to simplify and standardize award and project entry.

Terminating employees
Action taken to terminate an employee occurs when he or she leaves the organization. Information about the employee remains on the system but all current assignments are ended.

See matching tolerance.

Transaction control
Cost control at the project or task level.

Occurs when an employee accepts a position offered to him or her in the same Research Foundation department, in a different Research Foundation department, or at another operating location. For transfers within the same operating location the new position will be at the same salary grade, but the new position title can be different.

Travel status
An employee is in travel status when engaged in official RF business at a distance greater than 35 miles from both his or her designated official station and place of residence.  Employees must be in travel status to be eligible for meals and lodging.

Tuition waiver 
"An official forgiveness of part or all of the tuition at a state-operated campus (not applicable to community colleges)."*

*Definition taken from the SUNY Administrative Procedure (Item 059) "Waiver of Tuition, Fees and Other Charges" (dated September 14, 1979).


Unpaid personal effort
Services provided by SUNY employees, employees of SUNY-affiliated institutions, or other outside parties that are not reimbursed by the sponsor of the Research Foundation administered award. Also commonly referred to as cost participation.

USCIS (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services)
Federal organization under the Department of Homeland Security, responsible for administering immigration and naturalization adjudication functions and establishing immigration services policies and priorities. Before 2003 these functions were previously performed by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Some of the USCIS forms still bear an INS form number. For more information, see


Veteran, other eligible
A person with active duty service at any point between December 7, 1941 and April 28, 1952; or a veteran who served in a campaign or on an expedition for which a campaign badge, a service medal, or an expeditionary medal has been awarded. The campaigns or expeditions that meet this criterion as of August 31, 1999 can be identified via the Internet at A veteran qualifies under this criterion only based upon military service in the identified campaign or expedition and not simply based on any military service during the time of the campaign or expedition. The campaign badges, service medals, and expeditionary medals that qualify under this criterion will be listed on Form DD-214, "Certificate of Discharge or Separation from Active Duty," or other official documents issued by a branch of service, if the veteran meets this criterion.

Veteran, special disabled
A person who is entitled to compensation under laws administered by the Veterans Administration for a disability rated at 30 percent or more; or rated at 10 or 20 percent in the case of a veteran who has been determined under §1506 of Title 38, U.S. Code, to have a significant employment handicap; or a person who was discharged or released from active duty because of a service-connected disability. The term significant employment handicap means a significant impairment of a veteran's ability to prepare for, obtain, or retain employment consistent with such veteran's abilities, aptitudes, and interests.

Veteran, Vietnam Era
A person who served more than 180 days of active military, naval, or air service, any part of which was during the period from August 5, 1964, through May 7, 1975, and who was discharged or released with other than a dishonorable discharge, or was discharged or released from active duty because of a service-connected disability.


In Oracle, the physical space where data is viewed and entered.

Women owned small business
A business that is at least 51 percent owned by women who are United States citizens and who also control and operate the business.

Work breakdown structure (WBS)

The breakdown of project work into tasks, or the organization or hierarchy of tasks in a project. These tasks can be broken down further into subtasks.